Selasa, 21 Desember 2010

Instructional System

what does instructional design mean?
the term instructional deign refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evolution. an instructioanl designer is somewhat like an engineer.
to understand the term intstructional design more clearly, we will review the maenigs of the words instruction design
instruction is the intentional facilitation of learning toward identified learning goals. instruction is the intentional arrangement of experiences, leading to learners acquiring particular pabilities.
term such as education, training, and teaching are often used interchangeably with instruction .
all instruction is part of education becauser all instruction consist of experiences leading to learning. but not all instruction can be considered training, how ever. for instance, in mltary education programs, learners maybe provided with some general instruction in math and reading.
in summary, this text focuses on the facilitation of learning : instruction. here we will consider instruction to be a subset of education.

what is design ?

 design is an activity or process that poeple engage in that improve the quality of their susequent creations. design is related to planning, the differnce being that once the expertise and care with which planning is conducted reaches a certain point, we begin to refer to the activity as "design".

THE INTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROCESS.

1. where are we going ? "perform an instructional analysis"2. how will get there ? "develop an intructional strategy"3. how will we know when we have arrined ? "develop and conduct an evaluation" these three activities form the foundation of the approach to instructional design*that this book describes. 

AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN PROCESS:DESIGNING TRAINING FOR DIGITAL-MAGIC REPAIR PERSONS

ANALYSIS. during the activity the designers will learn as much as they can aboutthe environmenet in which the learners (repair person) will be trained, about the learners themselves, and about the repair the task for which the learners must be prepared. the designer will ask many question of the manager and supervisors in the digital-magic company, the developers of the new television system,those who have provided training for repair persons in the past,and of the learners themselves. they will analyze the learning task itself.


SELECTING THE INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY
in addition, the designers determine what sequence of intruction should follow. they choose the medium (a single medium ) or media (a combination of multiple media ) that will support the intruction. this is the stage at which the desiners will determine exactly how intruction will take place.

EVALUATION at digital-magic some of the questions taht may be asked include the following :1. is the content accurate ?2. how should we conduct these tryouts ?3. what questions should be answered in order to determine problems in the groups ?4. what revisions should be made in the intruction ? when we use the term evaluation, it will often be in reference to the broad topic including both assessment of learners and evaluations of the intructions.


Instructional Design Models
The designer engages in three major activities: analysis, strategy development, and evaluation. These three activities are the essence of most instructional design models.
This process of building your own model is enabled by a thorough knowledge of the principles that guide design.Advantages of Using Systematic Instructional Design.
1. Encourages advocacy of the learner.
2. Supports effective, efficient, and appealing instruction. All of these factors are considered indicators for success.
3. Supports coordination among designers, developers, and those who will implement the instruction.
4. Facilitates diffusion/dissemination/adoption.
5. Supports development for alternate embodiments or delivery systems.
6. Facilitates congruence among objectives, activities, and assessment.
7. Provides a systematic framework for dealing with learning problems.

People Who Do Instructional DesignAs you may (or may not) recall from the Preface, the treatment of instructional design in this text is intended for everyone who may benefit from it.


advantages of using systematic instructioanl design
1. Encourages advocacy of the learner.
2. Supports effective, efficient, and appealing instruction.
3. Supports coordination among designers, developers, and those who will implement the instruction
4. Facilitates diffusion/dissemination/adoption
5. Supports development for alternate embodiments or delivery systems
6. Facilitates congruence among objectives, activities, and assessment.
7. Provides a systematic framework for dealing with learning problems.

Limitations of Systematic Instructional Design
Instructional design does have limits of applicability; it is not the solution to all the ills and problems of education and training, nor is it the only method for creating education.

People Who Do Instructional Design
As you may (or may not) recall from the Preface, the treatment of instructional design in this text is intended for everyone who may benefit from it.


TRAINING DESIGNERS
Training may be pert of a human resources department or they may have their own separate department. Not all trainers are instructional designers. Some trainers are experts in their skill or subject area, who are either permanently or temporarily assigned to conduct training in that area. Many trainers come from an adult education backgorund that emphasizes adult development.

TEACHER DESIGNERS
Some individuals employed as teacher are directly involved in the design of new instruction. Intructional design procedures and principles can be employed effectively in their curriculum design and development activities. These design activities are completet both planfully in advance of implementation and spontaneously as circumstances suggest their  us.most often these instructional design activities are conducted mentally with little documentation of the decision made.
OTHER  DESIGNERS
Instructional designers are also engaged in developing instruction that is embodied in text books, multimedia, instructional software, and videos used in K-12 and post secondary setting.
Competencies  Standards and Ethich of Instructional Design
Competencies
Various agencies have compiled sets of competencies for instructional designers.
Standartds
Fields and his associates elaborated the IBSTPI competencies with training standards as well as providing as description of common and usus of standards by various subgroups.
Ethics
Like copetencies and standarda, profesional codes of ethics provide guidance for good pratice

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